The Many Paths to Glory

Bacchylides, 10.35-52

“Different people chart
Different paths as they try
To find unambiguous glory.
And there are 10,000 kinds of human knowledge.

The skilled person thrives in hope
Whether they’ve come into the Graces’ honor
Or learned some prophetic art.
One aims his fancy bow
At boys, while others
Build up their hearts
In their fields and herds of cattle.

The future shows how things turn out,
Where fortune puts its weight.

The best thing of all
Is to be a noble envied by many people.

I know something about wealth’s great power too:
It makes even a worthless man useful.

Why do I drive my tongue so far directly and off the road?”

ματεύει
δ᾿ ἄλλ[ος ἀλλοί]αν κέλευθον,
ἅντι[να στείχ]ων ἀριγνώτοιο δόξας
τεύξεται. μυρίαι δ᾿ ἀνδρῶν ἐπιστᾶμαι πέλονται·
ἦ γὰρ σ [ο]φὸς ἢ Χαρίτων τιμὰν λελογχώς
ἐλπίδι χρυσέαι τέθαλεν
ἤ τινα θευπροπίαν
εἰδώς· ἕτερος δ᾿ ἐπὶ παισί
ποικίλον τόξον τιταίνει·
οἱ δ᾿ ἐπ᾿ ἔργοισίν τε καὶ ἀμφὶ βοῶν ἀ[γ]έλαις
θυμὸν αὔξουσιν. τὸ μέλλον
δ᾿ ἀκρίτους τίκτει τελευτάς,
πᾶ τύχα βρίσει. τὸ μὲν κάλλιστον, ἐσθλόν
ἄνδρα πολλῶν ὑπ᾿ ἀνθρώπων πολυζήλωτον εἶμεν·
οἶδα καὶ πλούτου μεγάλαν δύνασιν,
ἃ καὶ τ[ὸ]ν ἀχρεῖον τ[θησ]ι
χρηστόν. τί μακρὰν γ[λ]ῶ[σ]σαν ἰθύσας ἐλαύνω
ἐτὸς ὁδοῦ;

color photo detail of a red figure vase: a beardless main in a chiton is passing a lyre to someone to viwer's right
Achilles Painter Red Figure Vase Detail, München, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2329 c 450-435 BCE

A Memorial of Pain to His Enemies

IG IV 783 Troizen

[fragmentary lines]

mild-minded and gentle…[..]..
On their own family they set […]
but while god allotted [him] countless gifts,
he never forgot his own country

Hermas…..[this] marble copy
Of the best man Olympos.

I sing of him and the fame of his ancestors
Who once [at] the founding of Troizen
Made the city noble and revered in glory.
I myself stand showing this memory.
Causing pain to their enemies, but dear to their friends
By the vote…..of the people.

A.1
[— — — — — — —]#⁷․Υ̣ΠΟΝΩΞΕΝΟϹ Ἑρμᾶς
[— — — — — — — — — — — — — — —]#⁷ΙΙΟ̣ΙϹ[— —]
[— — —]#⁷Η̣ΧΑ#⁷Ι#⁷[— — — — — — — — — — — —]
[— — —]ΙΕΚΥΔΑΙΝΕΙΝΛΙ̣[— — — — — — — — — —]
ΕΝ ἠπιόφρων καὶ μείλιχος [— — —]Ν[— —]
ἐ̣ν γενεῇ σφετέρῃ θῆκεν(?) ΛΙΙ[— — —]
[ἀλ]λὰ θεὸς νεύσιεν ἔχειν ἀπερείσια δῶρ̣[α]
οὔποτε τῆς ἰδίης λησαμέν̣ῳ πα̣τρίδος.

                                vacat
B.1
Ἑρμᾶς ΡΥ̣Ι̣Ο̣[— — —]ΛΙϹΤΟΝΕΝ̣ΚΚ̣#⁷Ϲ, τύπ̣[ον]
ἀνδρὸς φερ̣ίστου μη̣νύων Ὀλυμπί[ο]υ·
ᾄδω δὲ τοῦτον καὶ προπατόρων κλ̣[έος],
οἳ π̣ρίν ποτ ἄστυ, τοῦ δὲ Τροιζῆνος κ[τίσιν],
ἔθηκαν ἀισθλὸν καὶ γέρηραν εὐκλε[ῶς].
ἕστηκα δ αὐτὸς δόγμα δεικνύων τ[όδε]·
λυπῶν μὲν ἐκθρούς, τοῖς φίλοισι δ ὢν φ[ίλος].

   ψ(ηφίσματι)              δ(ήμου).

Photography of sun coming over a mountain ridge in the background with trees and wildflowers in the foreground
The archaeological site of Troizen, Greece, picture taken in 2011

Pindar: When Men Shine

Pindar. Pythian Odes. 8. 88-97.

A man fresh from some handsome win
In a time of plenty,
Takes flight, hope-propelled,
On wings of manly accomplishment.
He’s intent on more than riches.

Men’s joy swells fast, and fast it falls to earth
Disturbed by an adverse pronouncement.

Beings for a day. What is anyone?
What is someone not? A shadow’s dreaming,
That’s man. Yet, when the light of Zeus issues,
Men shine radiant and life is kind.

ὁ δὲ καλόν τι νέον λαχὼν
ἁβρότατος ἔπι μεγάλας
ἐξ ἐλπίδος πέταται
ὑποπτέροις ἀνορέαις, ἔχων
κρέσσονα πλούτου μέριμναν. ἐν δ᾽ ὀλίγῳ βροτῶν
τὸ τερπνὸν αὔξεται: οὕτω δὲ καὶ πίτνει χαμαί,
ἀποτρόπῳ γνώμᾳ σεσεισμένον.

ἐπάμεροι: τί δέ τις; τί δ᾽ οὔ τις; σκιᾶς ὄναρ
ἄνθρωπος. ἀλλ᾽ ὅταν αἴγλα διόσδοτος ἔλθῃ,
λαμπρὸν φέγγος ἔπεστιν ἀνδρῶν καὶ μείλιχος αἰών.

Black vase with a white square for the painting. An Athlete in simple lines carries a tripod on his head
Greek terracotta amphora depicting an athlete
carrying off his prize (a tripod).
c.550 B.C.
Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Larry Benn has a B.A. in English Literature from Harvard College, an M.Phil in English Literature from Oxford University, and a J.D. from Yale Law School. Making amends for a working life misspent in finance, he’s now a hobbyist in ancient languages and blogs at featsofgreek.blogspot.com.

Your Lovely Glory

IG II² 3783, Attica c. 302 BCE

If mortals’ noble mind previously found anything in an art
I claim that you have gazed upon everything in your polished thoughts,
Evaluating the wise judgment of doctors and selecting
The best from books with your soul’s eye,
Then you, Argaios have offered the rejuvenating delight
Of Bacchus’ wine that wards off limb-breaking labors.
Thanks to these things, the lovely glory of your craft will never die,
And will become brighter than the stars in the sky.”

εἴ τι π[άρ]ος μερόπων γεραὸς νόος εὗρ’ ἐνὶ τέχναι,
φαμί σε [πᾶ]ν κατιδεῖν εὐξυνέτοις πραπίσι,
κρίνανθ’ ἱητρῶν σοφὰ δόγματα καὶ τὸ περισσὸν
ἐκ βύβλων ψυχῆς ὄμματι δρεψάμενον,
εὐιάδος τ’, Ἀργαῖε, πορεῖν γάνος ἁμερίοισιν
οἴνας γυιοπαγεῖς ῥυόμενεον καμάτους.
ἀνθ’ ὧν σοῦ τέχνας ἐρατὸν κλέος οὔποτ’ ὀλεῖται,
λαμπρότερον δ’ ἄστρων ἔσσεται οὐρανίων.

Oil payment of an older monk with a beard smelling a glass of wine
Monk drinking wine, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Painting,_European,_Monk_Drinking_Wine_XIXe.jpg

Glorifying One’s Country Through Sacrifice

IG I³ 1179, c. 432 BCE, Dedicatory Inscription in the Athenian Agora

These Athenians died at Poteidaia
Immortal me de[ath…
To indicate excellence…..
Along with the strength of their ancestor…..
When they died they earned as a monument victory in war.

The sky welcomed their souls, while their bodies took this land.
And they perished around the gates of Poteidaia.
Some of their enemies have a tomb as their share, but those who fled
Made their wall the most trusted hope for their lives.

The city and the people of Erekhtheus long for those
Who died among the front lines at Poteidaia,
These children of the Athenians–they set their lives on the balance,
Earned their excellence, and brought glory to their country.”

I.1
ἐμ Π̣οτ̣[ειδαίαι Ἀθεναίον ℎοίδε ἀπέθανον]·
ἀθάνατόν με θ̣α[νο— ⏕ –⏕ –⏑⏑ –⏓] /
σεμαίνεν ἀρετ[ὲν –⏑⏑ –⏑⏑ –] /
καὶ ΠΡΟΓΟΝΟΣΘΕΝΝΕΣ— — — /
νίκεν εὐπόλεμον μνε͂μ’ ἔλαβο<μ> φθ̣[ίμενοι]. /

II.6
αἰθὲρ μὲν φσυχὰς ὑπεδέχσατο, σόμ̣[ατα δὲ χθὸν] /
το͂νδε· Ποτειδαίας δ’ ἀμφὶ πύλας ἐλ[ύθεν]· /
ἐχθρο͂ν δ’ οἱ μὲν ἔχοσι τάφο μέρος, ℎο̣[ι δὲ φυγόντες] /
τεῖχος πιστοτάτεν ℎελπίδ’ ἔθεντο [βίο]. /

III.10
ἄνδρας μὲν πόλις ℎέδε ποθεῖ καὶ δε͂[μος Ἐρεχθο͂ς], /
πρόσθε Ποτειδαίας ℎοὶ θάνον ἐν πρ[ο]μάχοις /
παῖδες Ἀθεναίον· φσυχὰς δ’ ἀντίρρο[π]α θέντες /
ἐ[λλ]άχσαντ’ ἀρετὲν καὶ πατρ̣[ίδ’] ε̣ὐκλ[έ]ϊσα̣ν̣.’

This is a cast of a 5th c. BCE inscription of an epigram on the base of a civic funeral monument dedicated to the Athenians killed in the Battle of Poteidaia (Potidaea) in 432 BCE. The inscription, IG I³ 1179 and Agora XVII.16, is housed at the British Museum. The base probably held a stele containing the names of the 150 men Thucydides (1.63) reports were killed in the battle.
Poteidaia Epigram

Milet VI,2 732 [= GVI I (1955) 33] Dedicatory Inscription in Miletus for those fallen in battle against Megara

This is a monument of those who died–it confers excellence upon them
Those who died brought glory to their country.
A monument is yoked with deeds throughout Greece
And an eternal memory lives on for those who have died.

μνῆμα τόδε̣ [φ]θιμ[έ]νων? ἀρετῆς ἕστ[ηκ’] ἐπὶ τῶ̣ν̣δε,
οἳ κ[τάμεν]οι σφετέ[ρ]ην εὐκ̣λέϊσαν π̣[α]τρίδα·
μν̣η̣[μ]ε̣ῖ̣[ο]ν̣ πᾶσαν δὲ καθ’ Ἑλλάδα σύζ̣[υγ]ον ἔργοις
ἀ̣θ̣ά̣νατος μνήμη ζῶσα θανοῦσ[ιν] ἔπι.

[additional stanzas left out]

The Pleasure of a Life without Helplessness

Bacchylides, Odes 1. 159-177

I claim and I will continue to claim
that excellence receives the greatest glory.
Wealth tends to join up
With even worthless people–
It longs to puff up a man’s thoughts,

But someone who treats the gods well
Inflates their heart with a hope for greater glory–
Even though mortal, they earn health and
Can live from their own means and
Compete among the foremost.

Pleasure joins every human life
Once the helplessness of poverty and disease
Is removed.

Rich people desire equal
In proportion to their wealth,
And the poor want less–
Yet there’s nothing sweet
When mortals can get everything.
We always try to take
Whatever escapes us.”

φαμὶ καὶ φάσω μέγιστον
κῦδος ἔχειν ἀρετάν· πλοῦ-
τος δὲ καὶ δειλοῖσιν ἀνθρώπων ὁμιλεῖ,

ἐθέλει δ᾿ αὔξειν φρένας ἀνδρός·
ὁ δ᾿ εὖ ἔρδων θεούς
ἐλπίδι κυδροτέραι
σαίνει κέαρ. εἰ δ᾿ ὑγιείας
θνατὸς ἐὼν ἔλαχεν
ζώειν τ᾿ ἀπ᾿ οἰκείων ἔχει,
πρώτοις ἐρίζει· παντί τοι
τέρψις ἀνθρώπων βίωι
ἕπεται νόσφιν γε νόσων
πενίας τ᾿ ἀμαχάνου.

ἶσον ὅ τ᾿ ἀφνεὸς ἱμείρει
μεγάλων ὅ τε μείων
παυροτέρων· τὸ δὲ πάντων
εὐμαρεῖν οὐδὲν γλυκύ
θνατοῖσιν, ἀλλ᾿ αἰεὶ τὰ φεύγοντα
δίζηνται κιχεῖν.

A painting of a dark room with a starving old man in the foreground, attracting a lot of light to his emaciated body
Hendrick ter Brugghen, “The Rich Man and the Poor Lazarus”

Glory and Worthless Wealth

Bacchylides, Odes 1. 159-172

“I claim and I will always claim
That excellence has the greatest glory.
Wealth will flock to worthless people
And always tends to swell a person’s thoughts.
But the one who does well for the gods
Has more glorious hopes
To settle their heart.

But if someone has health
Even if mortal
And can live through their own household
They rival the best.

Truly, all pleasure
In a person’s life
Comes apart from disease
And a poverty with no cure.

Rich people desire big things
No less than the poor something smaller,
And there’s nothing sweet for mortals
In being able to get everything at all
Because they’re always straining to catch
Whatever is getting away.”

φαμὶ καὶ φάσω μέγιστον
κῦδος ἔχειν ἀρετάν· πλοῦ-
τος δὲ καὶ δειλοῖσιν ἀνθρώπων ὁμιλεῖ,
ἐθέλει δ᾿ αὔξειν φρένας ἀνδρός·
ὁ δ᾿ εὖ ἔρδων θεούς
ἐλπίδι κυδροτέραι
σαίνει κέαρ. εἰ δ᾿ ὑγιείας
θνατὸς ἐὼν ἔλαχεν
ζώειν τ᾿ ἀπ᾿ οἰκείων ἔχει,
πρώτοις ἐρίζει· παντί τοι
τέρψις ἀνθρώπων βίωι
ἕπεται νόσφιν γε νόσων
πενίας τ᾿ ἀμαχάνου.
ἶσον ὅ τ᾿ ἀφνεὸς ἱμείρει
μεγάλων ὅ τε μείων
παυροτέρων· τὸ δὲ πάντων
εὐμαρεῖν οὐδὲν γλυκύ
θνατοῖσιν, ἀλλ᾿ αἰεὶ τὰ φεύγοντα
δίζηνται κιχεῖν.

Raphaelle Peale, “Melons and Morning Glories” 1813

Not Without Glory

Homer, Iliad 22.300-305

“But now an evil death is indeed near me, not far off
And unavoidable. Truly, my life was once dear to Zeus’s heart
And Zeus’ son the far-shooter, those two who previously
Used to defend me. But now fate has overtaken me in its turn.
May I not die without a struggle, at least, and without glory,
But after doing something important for people in the future to learn”

νῦν δὲ δὴ ἐγγύθι μοι θάνατος κακός, οὐδ’ ἔτ’ ἄνευθεν,
οὐδ’ ἀλέη· ἦ γάρ ῥα πάλαι τό γε φίλτερον ἦεν
Ζηνί τε καὶ Διὸς υἷι ἑκηβόλῳ, οἵ με πάρος γε
πρόφρονες εἰρύατο· νῦν αὖτέ με μοῖρα κιχάνει.
μὴ μὰν ἀσπουδί γε καὶ ἀκλειῶς ἀπολοίμην,
ἀλλὰ μέγα ῥέξας τι καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι.

Felice Giani, Drawing, Hector’s Farewell (Addio di Ettore a Andromaca)

Graves, Signs, and Glory

Homer, Iliad 7.89-91

“…They will heap up a mound [sêma] on the broad Hellespont
And someone of the men who are born in the future may say
As he says over the wine-faced sea in his many-benched ship:
This is the marker [sêma] of a man who died long ago,
A man whom shining Hektor killed when he was at his best”
So someone someday will say. And my glory will never perish”

σῆμά τέ οἱ χεύωσιν ἐπὶ πλατεῖ ῾Ελλησπόντῳ.
καί ποτέ τις εἴπῃσι καὶ ὀψιγόνων ἀνθρώπων
νηῒ πολυκλήϊδι πλέων ἐπὶ οἴνοπα πόντον·
ἀνδρὸς μὲν τόδε σῆμα πάλαι κατατεθνηῶτος,
ὅν ποτ’ ἀριστεύοντα κατέκτανε φαίδιμος ῞Εκτωρ.
ὥς ποτέ τις ἐρέει· τὸ δ’ ἐμὸν κλέος οὔ ποτ’ ὀλεῖται.

Iliad 24.801–804

“After heaping up the mound [sêma] they returned. Then
Once they were well gathered they shared a fine feast
In the halls of the god-nourished king, Priam.
Thus they were completing the burial of horse-taming Hektor.”

χεύαντες δὲ τὸ σῆμα πάλιν κίον· αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα
εὖ συναγειρόμενοι δαίνυντ’ ἐρικυδέα δαῖτα
δώμασιν ἐν Πριάμοιο διοτρεφέος βασιλῆος.
῝Ως οἵ γ’ ἀμφίεπον τάφον ῞Εκτορος ἱπποδάμοιο.

Hektor’s grave is described a little differently earlier. (I explain the “emptiness” of the tomb in another post)

Homer, Il. 24.797–800

“They quickly placed the bones in an empty trench and then
They covered it with great, well-fitted stones.
They rushed to heap up a marker [sêma], around which they set guards
In case the well-greaved Achaeans should attack too soon.”

αἶψα δ’ ἄρ’ ἐς κοίλην κάπετον θέσαν, αὐτὰρ ὕπερθε
πυκνοῖσιν λάεσσι κατεστόρεσαν μεγάλοισι·
ῥίμφα δὲ σῆμ’ ἔχεαν, περὶ δὲ σκοποὶ ἥατο πάντῃ,
μὴ πρὶν ἐφορμηθεῖεν ἐϋκνήμιδες ᾿Αχαιοί.

Odyssey 11.72-78 (Elpenor asking to be buried)

“Don’t leave me unmourned, unburied when you turn around
And go back—so that I might not be a reason for the gods to rage—
But burn me with my weapons and everything which is mind
Then build a mound [sêma] for me on the shore of the grey sea,
For a pitiful man, and for those to come to learn of me.
Finish these things for me and then affix an oar onto my tomb,
The one I was rowing with when I was alive and with my companions”

μή μ’ ἄκλαυτον ἄθαπτον ἰὼν ὄπιθεν καταλείπειν
νοσφισθείς, μή τοί τι θεῶν μήνιμα γένωμαι,
ἀλλά με κακκῆαι σὺν τεύχεσιν, ἅσσα μοί ἐστι,
σῆμά τέ μοι χεῦαι πολιῆς ἐπὶ θινὶ θαλάσσης,
ἀνδρὸς δυστήνοιο, καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι·
ταῦτά τέ μοι τελέσαι πῆξαί τ’ ἐπὶ τύμβῳ ἐρετμόν,
τῷ καὶ ζωὸς ἔρεσσον ἐὼν μετ’ ἐμοῖσ’ ἑτάροισιν.’

Odyssey 11.126–129 (Teiresias’ prophecy)

I will speak to you an obvious sign [sêma] and it will not escape you.
Whenever some other traveler meets you and asks
Why you have a winnowing fan on your fine shoulder,
At that very point drive the well-shaped oar into the ground

σῆμα δέ τοι ἐρέω μάλ’ ἀριφραδές, οὐδέ σε λήσει·
ὁππότε κεν δή τοι ξυμβλήμενος ἄλλος ὁδίτης
φήῃ ἀθηρηλοιγὸν ἔχειν ἀνὰ φαιδίμῳ ὤμῳ,
καὶ τότε δὴ γαίῃ πήξας εὐῆρες ἐρετμόν

Image result for ancient Greek funeral mounds
Tumulus of Marathon.

Graves, Signs, and Glory

Homer, Iliad 7.89-91

“…They will heap up a mound [sêma] on the broad Hellespont
And someone of the men who are born in the future may say
As he says over the wine-faced sea in his many-benched ship:
This is the marker [sêma] of a man who died long ago,
A man whom shining Hektor killed when he was at his best”
So someone someday will say. And my glory will never perish”

σῆμά τέ οἱ χεύωσιν ἐπὶ πλατεῖ ῾Ελλησπόντῳ.
καί ποτέ τις εἴπῃσι καὶ ὀψιγόνων ἀνθρώπων
νηῒ πολυκλήϊδι πλέων ἐπὶ οἴνοπα πόντον·
ἀνδρὸς μὲν τόδε σῆμα πάλαι κατατεθνηῶτος,
ὅν ποτ’ ἀριστεύοντα κατέκτανε φαίδιμος ῞Εκτωρ.
ὥς ποτέ τις ἐρέει· τὸ δ’ ἐμὸν κλέος οὔ ποτ’ ὀλεῖται.

Iliad 24.801–804

“After heaping up the mound [sêma] they returned. Then
Once they were well gathered they shared a fine feast
In the halls of the god-nourished king, Priam.
Thus they were completing the burial of horse-taming Hektor.”

χεύαντες δὲ τὸ σῆμα πάλιν κίον· αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα
εὖ συναγειρόμενοι δαίνυντ’ ἐρικυδέα δαῖτα
δώμασιν ἐν Πριάμοιο διοτρεφέος βασιλῆος.
῝Ως οἵ γ’ ἀμφίεπον τάφον ῞Εκτορος ἱπποδάμοιο.

Hektor’s grave is described a little differently earlier. (I explain the “emptiness” of the tomb in another post)

Homer, Il. 24.797–800

“They quickly placed the bones in an empty trench and then
They covered it with great, well-fitted stones.
They rushed to heap up a marker [sêma], around which they set guards
In case the well-greaved Achaeans should attack too soon.”

αἶψα δ’ ἄρ’ ἐς κοίλην κάπετον θέσαν, αὐτὰρ ὕπερθε
πυκνοῖσιν λάεσσι κατεστόρεσαν μεγάλοισι·
ῥίμφα δὲ σῆμ’ ἔχεαν, περὶ δὲ σκοποὶ ἥατο πάντῃ,
μὴ πρὶν ἐφορμηθεῖεν ἐϋκνήμιδες ᾿Αχαιοί.

Odyssey 11.72-78 (Elpenor asking to be buried)

“Don’t leave me unmourned, unburied when you turn around
And go back—so that I might not be a reason for the gods to rage—
But burn me with my weapons and everything which is mind
Then build a mound [sêma] for me on the shore of the grey sea,
For a pitiful man, and for those to come to learn of me.
Finish these things for me and then affix an oar onto my tomb,
The one I was rowing with when I was alive and with my companions”

μή μ’ ἄκλαυτον ἄθαπτον ἰὼν ὄπιθεν καταλείπειν
νοσφισθείς, μή τοί τι θεῶν μήνιμα γένωμαι,
ἀλλά με κακκῆαι σὺν τεύχεσιν, ἅσσα μοί ἐστι,
σῆμά τέ μοι χεῦαι πολιῆς ἐπὶ θινὶ θαλάσσης,
ἀνδρὸς δυστήνοιο, καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι·
ταῦτά τέ μοι τελέσαι πῆξαί τ’ ἐπὶ τύμβῳ ἐρετμόν,
τῷ καὶ ζωὸς ἔρεσσον ἐὼν μετ’ ἐμοῖσ’ ἑτάροισιν.’

Odyssey 11.126–129 (Teiresias’ prophecy)

I will speak to you an obvious sign [sêma] and it will not escape you.
Whenever some other traveler meets you and asks
Why you have a winnowing fan on your fine shoulder,
At that very point drive the well-shaped oar into the ground

σῆμα δέ τοι ἐρέω μάλ’ ἀριφραδές, οὐδέ σε λήσει·
ὁππότε κεν δή τοι ξυμβλήμενος ἄλλος ὁδίτης
φήῃ ἀθηρηλοιγὸν ἔχειν ἀνὰ φαιδίμῳ ὤμῳ,
καὶ τότε δὴ γαίῃ πήξας εὐῆρες ἐρετμόν

Image result for ancient Greek funeral mounds
Tumulus of Marathon.