Zonaras 7.4 Part II: Murder and Bloody Rain

In the fifth year of Tatius’ joint reign with Romulus, some of his kinsmen encountered some elders walking along the road from Larentum to Rome, and attempted to take from them by force the goods which they were carrying. When they did not give up the goods, but rather attempted to protect them, they were killed by Tatius’ men. Romulus then cast his vote to chastise the men who had committed this injustice, but Tatius opposed him and tried to lead him away from his purpose. This alone was the cause of the manifest rupture in their friendship. Since the kinsmen of those who were killed did not receive justice, they set upon Tatius as he was making sacrifice in the Alban Hills and killed him. They sent Romulus away with some well-wishing because they considered him a just man. The murder of Titus Tatius did not disturb the Sabines; some of them were well-disposed to Romulus, and others continued to yield to him out of fear for his power. Thereupon, a plague fell upon the city, bringing much sudden death to its inhabitants without any illness; there was moreover a lack of grain, and all of the herds and flocks became sterile. Drops of blood even rained on the city. Similar things happened in Laurentum. It seemed that a heaven-sent fury pursued these cities on account of the murder of Tatius and those ambassadords who had been killed by the Sabines. When they gave up the murderers and punished them, the terrible portents ceased.

῎Ετει δὲ πέμπτῳ τοῦ Τατίου ῾Ρωμύλῳ συμβασιλεύοντος συγγενεῖς αὐτοῦ πρέσβεσι καθ’ ὁδὸν ἐντυχόντες εἰς ῾Ρώμην ἀπὸ Λαυρεντοῦ βαδίζουσιν ἐπεχείρουν ἀφαιρεῖσθαι βίᾳ τὰ χρήματα ἃ ἐπήγοντο, καὶ μὴ προϊεμένους, ἀλλ’ ἀμυνομένους ἀνεῖλον. ὁ μὲν οὖν Ρωμύλος κολάζεσθαι τοὺς ἀδικήσαντας ἐψηφίζετο, ὁ δὲ Τάτιος ἐξέκρουε καὶ παρῆγε· καὶ τοῦτο μόνον ὑπῆρξεν αἴτιον σφίσι διαφορᾶς ἐμφανοῦς. οἱ δὲ τῶν ἀνῃρημένων οἰκεῖοι μὴ τυγχάνοντες δίκης, ἐν ᾿Αλβανῷ θύοντα μετὰ ῾Ρωμύλου τὸν Τάτιον προσπεσόντες κτιννύουσι· τὸν δὲ ῾Ρωμύλον ὡς δίκαιον ἄνδρα σὺν εὐφημίαις προέπεμψαν. οὐ μὴν ἐτάραξε τοὺς Σαβίνους ὁ φόνος τοῦ σφῶν ἄρχοντος, ἀλλ’ οἱ μὲν εὐνοίᾳ τῇ πρὸς ῾Ρωμύλον, οἱ δὲ φόβῳ τῆς δυνάμεως εἴκοντες διετέλουν. εἶτα λοιμὸς ἐμπίπτει τῇ πόλει θανάτους αἰφνιδίους ἀνθρώποις ἐπιφέρων νόσων χωρίς, καὶ ἀφορία καρπῶν καὶ θρεμμάτων ἀγονία· ὕσθη δὲ καὶ σταγόσιν αἵματος ἡ πόλις. ὅμοια δὲ καὶ τοῖς Λαυρεντίοις συνέβαινεν. ἐδόκει τοίνυν διὰ τὸν Τατίου φόνον καὶ τοὺς παρὰ τῶν Σαβίνων ἀνῃρημένους πρέσβεις ποινηλατεῖν τὰς πόλεις δαιμόνιον μήνιμα. ἐκδοθέντων δὲ τῶν φονέων καὶ κολασθέντων ἐλώφησαν τὰ δεινά.

Zonaras 7.4 Part I: The Roman/Sabine Peace

The Sabines and Romans make peace; Zonaras plays at Latin etymology, and gives an interesting explanation of the Roman epithet “Quirites.”

When the heights had been abandoned by the Sabines, fierce fighting broke out between them and the Romans, in which many people were slain, and Romulus was struck on the head with a rock.The captive daughters checked their Sabine kinsmen who were still prepared to fight, and were seen shouting here and wailing there. They brought out their babies in their arms, they loosed their hair, and they called now upon the Sabines, and now upon the Romans, with various terms of endearment. The enemies were moved to pity, and stood apart while the women stood in the middle of the lines, and all sides began to cry. Once the women had made their point, the opposing leaders made a parley, and the women who so wished were allowed to remain with the men who now possessed them, with an exemption from every deed and all daily work except for spinning wool. Furthermore, the Romans and Sabines would jointly inhabit the city, which was to be called Rome after Romulus, but the citizens were to be named Kurites [Quirites] after Kurita, the father of Titus Tatius. Both peoples would rule the city, and they would marshal armies jointly. The place in which they made this agreement was called the Comitium, clearly because it was a spot for meeting, because among the Romans the word ‘comire’ means to come together. Moreover, another hundred men were selected from the Sabines and added to the number of patricians. At first, the kings did not take counsel in common among each other, but in private with their own hundred patricians. Subsequently, everyone came together in the same place.

Ληφθείσης δὲ τῆς ἄκρας ὑπὸ τῶν Σαβίνων, μάχη καρτερὰ συνερράγη μέσον αὐτῶν καὶ ῾Ρωμαίων, ἐν ᾗ πολλοὶ μὲν ἔπεσον, ὁ δὲ ῾Ρωμύλος ἐπλήγη λίθῳ τὴν κεφαλήν. ἔτι δὲ μάχεσθαι παρασκευαζομένους τοὺς Σαβίνους ἐπέσχον αἱ ἡρπασμέναι θυγατέρες αὐτῶν, ἄλλοθεν ἄλλαι μετὰ βοῆς καὶ ὀλολυγμοῦ ὀφθεῖσαι αὐτοῖς, αἱ μὲν νήπια πρὸς ταῖς ἀγκάλαις κομίζουσαι, αἱ δὲ τὴν κόμην προϊσχόμεναι λελυμένην, πᾶσαι δὲ ἀνακαλούμεναι τοῖς φιλτάτοις ὀνόμασι ποτὲ μὲν τοὺς Σαβίνους, ποτὲ δὲ τοὺς ῾Ρωμαίους. ἐπεκλάσθησαν οὖν οἱ ἐναντίοι καὶ διέστησαν αὐταῖς ἐν μέσῳ στῆναι τῆς παρατάξεως, καὶ κλαυθμὸς ἅμα διὰ πάντων ἐχώρει. διαλεχθέντων δὲ τῶν γυναίων συνῆλθον εἰς λόγους οἱ ἡγεμόνες καὶ συνέθεντο τῶν μὲν γυναικῶν αἳ βούλονται τοῖς ἔχουσι συνοικεῖν, παντὸς ἔργου καὶ πάσης λατρείας πλὴν ταλασίας ἀφειμένας, οἰκεῖν δὲ τὴν πόλιν ῾Ρωμαίους καὶ Σαβίνους κοινῇ, καὶ καλεῖσθαι αὐτὴν ῾Ρώμην ἐπὶ ῾Ρωμύλῳ, Κυρίτας δὲ ῾Ρωμαίους ἐπὶ τῇ Τατίου πατρίδι Κυρίτα, βασιλεύειν δὲ κοινῇ καὶ στρατηγεῖν ἀμφοτέρους. ὁ δὲ τόπος ἐν ᾧ τὰς συνθήκας ἔθεντο καλεῖται κομίτιον, τόπος δηλαδὴ συνελεύσεως· κόμιρε γὰρ ῾Ρωμαίοις τὸ συνελθεῖν λέγεται. προσκατελέχθησαν δὲ τοῖς πατρικίοις ἐκ τῶν Σαβίνων ἕτεροι ἑκατόν. ἐβουλεύοντο δὲ οἱ βασιλεῖς οὐκ εὐθὺς ἐν κοινῷ μετ’ ἀλλήλων, ἀλλ’ ἑκάτερος πρότερον ἰδίᾳ μετὰ τῶν ἑκατόν· εἶτα εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ πάντες συνήγοντο.

Zonaras 7.3 Part V – Titus Tatius and the Death of Tarpeia

Titus Tatius launches another Sabine attack on Rome; Tarpeia betrays the city.

Thereupon some of the Sabines fought with the Romans and were defeated. The rest of the Sabines made Titus Tatius their leader and set out against Rome. They took the Capitoline, which was betrayed by Tarpeia, the daughter of the Roman general. For she went down to the water where she was caught and brought to Titus Tatius, and she was persuaded to betray the defense of the city because she was desirous of the golden bracelets, which the Sabines were wearing on their left arms. She demanded these bracelets as a payment for her betrayal. At night, when Tatius had taken his position, she opened one gate and let the Sabines in. As Tatius entered, he commanded his forces to give Tarpeia whatever they had on their left arms. Tatius was the first to toss his armlet at Tarpeia, along with his shield. When everyone else did likewise, she was struck with the gold and, being showered with shields, she died under their weighty multitude.

This man Tatius accomplished in deed what Caesar and Antigonus subsequently talked about with words. For he claimed that he loved treachery, but hated the traitor. Antigonus however, said that he would welcome those who were in the act of treachery, but decreed death to those who had completed their treason.

Εἶτα καὶ ἄλλοι τῶν Σαβίνων τοῖς ῾Ρωμαίοις ἐμαχέσαντο καὶ ἡττήθησαν. ἐπὶ τούτοις οἱ λοιποὶ τῶν Σαβίνων στρατηγὸν τὸν Τάτιον ἀποδείξαντες ἐπὶ τὴν ῾Ρώμην ἐστράτευσαν καὶ τὸ Καπιτώλιον εἷλον προδεδομένον ὑπὸ Ταρπηίας τῆς θυγατρὸς τοῦ φρουράρχου. ἐκείνη γὰρ ἐφ’ ὕδωρ κατελθοῦσα συνελήφθη καὶ ἤχθη πρὸς Τάτιον, καὶ ἀνεπείσθη προδοῦναι τὸ ἔρυμα, τῶν χρυσῶν βραχιονιστήρων ἐρασθεῖσα, οὓς ἐν ταῖς ἀριστεραῖς ἐφόρουν χερσὶν οἱ Σαβῖνοι, καὶ μισθὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς προδοσίας λαβεῖν αὐτοὺς ἀπαιτήσασα. συνθεμένου δὲ τοῦ Τατίου νύκτωρ μίαν πύλην ἀνοίξασα τοὺς Σαβίνους ἐδέξατο. εἰσελθὼν δὲ ὁ Τάτιος ἐκέλευσε τοὺς ὑπ’ αὐτὸν ὅσα ἐν ταῖς ἀριστεραῖς χερσὶν ἔφερον διδόναι αὐτῇ, καὶ πρῶτος αὐτὸς τὸν βραχιονιστῆρα τῇ Ταρπηίᾳ ἐπέρριψε καὶ τὸν θυρεόν. πάντων δὲ ὁμοίως ποιούντων βαλλομένη τε τῷ χρυσῷ καὶ καταχωσθεῖσα τοῖς θυρεοῖς ὑπὸ πλήθους καὶ βάρους ἀπέθανεν.

῎Εργῳ οὖν οὗτος ἐποίησεν ὃ λόγοις ὕστερον εἶπον ὁ Καῖσαρ καὶ ὁ ᾿Αντίγονος· ὁ μὲν γὰρ προδοσίαν ἔφη φιλεῖν, προδότην δὲ μισεῖν· ὁ δὲ ᾿Αντίγονος προδιδόντας μὲν ἀσπασίως εἶπε προσίεσθαι, προδεδωκόσι δὲ ἀπεχθάνεσθαι.