Friday Night Advice: Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 2.3

“Panuasis the epic poet assigns the first drink to the Graces, Seasons, and Dionysus; the second to Aphrodite and Dionysus again; but he assigns the third drink to Hubris and Folly. Panuasis says,
‘The Graces and the kindly Seasons and loud-shouting Dionysus, out of whom it is fashioned, took their place first. Following them came the Cyprian goddess and Dionysus, of whom that finest drink of wine sprang forth. If one should drink it and turning his way home depart from a sweet dinner, he will be afflicted by no pain. But when someone draws himself out a third measure and drinks it eagerly, then the hard dispensation of Hubris and Folly comes about, and brings pain to mortals. But come, my friend, you have already had your share of sweet wine – go back home to your wife and let your friends get to sleep. I fear that Hubris will work up the fierce spirit in your breast if you drink that third portion of sweet wine, and will bring our fine festivities to a bitter end. So listen to me, and leave off that heavy drinking!’”

Πανύασις δ’ ὁ ἐποποιὸς τὴν μὲν πρώτην πόσιν
ἀπονέμει Χάρισιν, ῞Ωραις καὶ Διονύσῳ, τὴν δὲ δευ-
τέραν ᾿Αφροδίτῃ καὶ πάλιν Διονύσῳ, ῞Υβρει δὲ καὶ
῎Ατῃ τὴν τρίτην. Πανύασίς φησι (fr. 13 Ki)•
πρῶται μὲν Χάριτές τ’ ἔλαχον καὶ ἐύφρονες ῟Ωραι
μοῖραν καὶ Διόνυσος ἐρίβρομος, οἵπερ ἔτευξαν.
τοῖς δ’ ἔπι Κυπρογένεια θεὰ λάχε καὶ Διόνυσος.
ἔνθα τε κάλλιστος πότος ἀνδράσι γίνεται οἴνου•
εἴ τις <τόν> γε πίοι καὶ ἀπότροπος οἴκαδ’ ἀπέλθοι
δαιτὸς ἀπὸ γλυκερῆς, οὐκ ἄν ποτε πήματι κύρσαι•
ἀλλ’ ὅτε τις μοίρης τριτάτης πρὸς μέτρον ἐλαύνοι
πίνων ἀβλεμέως, τότε δ’ ῞Υβριος αἶσα καὶ ῎Ατης
γίνεται ἀργαλέα, κακὰ δ’ ἀνθρώποισιν ὀπάζει.
ἀλλὰ πέπον, μέτρον γὰρ ἔχεις γλυκεροῖο ποτοῖο,
στεῖχε παρὰ μνηστὴν ἄλοχον, κοίμιζε δ’ ἑταίρους•
δείδια γὰρ τριτάτης μοίρης μελιηδέος οἴνου
πινομένης, μή σ’ ῞Υβρις ἐνὶ φρεσὶ θυμὸν ἀέρσῃ,
ἐσθλοῖς δὲ ξενίοισι κακὴν ἐπιθῇσι τελευτήν.
ἀλλὰ πιθοῦ καὶ παῦε πολὺν πότον.

NOTE: The deep well of my ignorance will never run dry, and I will confess that until reading this passage in Athenaeus, I had never heard of Panyasis. According to the entry in the Suda, he was Herodotus’ cousin (ἱστόρηται δὲ Πανύασις ῾Ηροδότου τοῦ ἱστορικοῦ ἐξάδελφος·). He was also well-esteemed in antiquity:  ἐν δὲ ποιηταῖς τάττεται μεθ’ ῞Ομηρον, κατὰ δέ τινας καὶ μετὰ ῾Ησίοδον καὶ ᾿Αντίμαχον. (“Of the poets, he is placed among [after?] Homer; according to some, he belongs with [ranks next to?] Hesiod and Antimachus.”)

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