Earth, Mother of Gods and Men

Pindar, Nemean 6. 1-2

“The race of gods and the race of men are separate; but we both breathe thanks to one mother.”

῝Εν ἀνδρῶν, ἓν θεῶν γένος· ἐκ μιᾶς δὲ πνέομεν
ματρὸς ἀμφότεροι·

Homeric Hymn to Mother Earth (30)

“I sing of earth, the mother of all, our fine foundation,
The oldest one, who feeds as many things as exist on the land
And as many things that move on the earth, on the sea
Or fly above it. Everything grows strong because of your wealth.
Because of you, queen, they have many children and many fruit,
You have power to give life and take it away
For mortal men. Whoever you cherish in your heart
Becomes happy, because nothing is begrudged to him.
His field grows strong with life-giving food—and in the fields
He does well with his flocks, and his house is full of goods.
These men rule cities of beautiful women with good laws,
Great wealth and blessings attend them.
Their sons find glory in prudence and youth;
Their daughters carry flowers in dance with happy hearts
As they delight playing in the blooming meadow,
When you honor them, holy goddess, goddess without envy.

Hail, mother of the gods, wife of starry Ouranos,
Please grant us a life fit-to-our-hearts in exchange for this song.”

Γαῖαν παμμήτειραν ἀείσομαι, ἠϋθέμεθλον,
πρεσβίστην, ἣ φέρβει ἐπὶ χθονὶ πάνθ᾿ ὁπόσ᾿ ἐστίν,
ἠμὲν ὅσα χθόνα δῖαν ἐπέρχεται ἠδ᾿ ὅσα πόντον
ἠδ᾿ ὅσα πωτῶνται· τὰ δὲ φέρβεται ἐκ σέθεν ὄλβου.
ἐκ σέο δ᾿ εὔπαιδές τε καὶ εὔκαρποι τελέθουσιν,
πότνια, σεῦ δ᾿ ἔχεται δοῦναι βίον ἠδ᾿ ἀφελέσθαι
θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν· ὃ δ᾿ ὄλβιος, ὅν κε σὺ θυμῶι
πρόφρων τιμήσηις, τῶι τ᾿ ἄφθονα πάντα πάρεστιν·
βρίθει μέν σφιν ἄρουρα φερέσβιος, ἠδὲ κατ᾿ἀγρούς
κτήνεσιν εὐθηνεῖ, οἶκος δ᾿ ἐμπίμπλαται ἐσθλῶν·
αὐτοὶ δ᾿ εὐνομίηισι πόλιν κάτα καλλιγύναικα
κοιρανέουσ᾿, ὄλβος δὲ πολὺς καὶ πλοῦτος ὀπηδεῖ·
παῖδες δ᾿ εὐφροσύνηι νεοθηλέϊ κυδιόωσιν,
παρθενικαί τε χοροῖς φερεσανθέσιν εὔφρονι θυμῶι
παίζουσ<α>ι χαίρουσι κατ᾿ ἄνθεα μαλ<θ>ακὰ ποίης,
οὕς κε σὺ τιμήσηις, σεμνὴ θεά, ἄφθονε δαῖμον.
χαῖρε, θεῶν μήτηρ, ἄλοχ᾿ Οὑρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος,
πρόφρων δ᾿ ἀντ᾿ ὠιδῆς βίοτον θυμήρε᾿ ὄπαζε·

Euripides,fr. 484 (Melanippe Wise): Alternative Cosmogony

“The story is not mine, but from my mother:
Sky and Earth were once a single form.
When they were split apart from one another
They created and delivered all things to the light:
Trees, birds, beasts the sea supports
And the race of mortal men.”

κοὐκ ἐμὸς ὁ μῦθος, ἀλλ’ ἐμῆς μητρὸς πάρα,
ὡς οὐρανός τε γαῖά τ’ ἦν μορφὴ μία•
ἐπεὶ δ’ ἐχωρίσθησαν ἀλλήλων δίχα,
τίκτουσι πάντα κἀνέδωκαν εἰς φάος,
δένδρη, πετεινά, θῆρας οὕς θ’ ἅλμη τρέφει
γένος τε θνητῶν.

 

Image result for Ancient Greek Gaia

Betraying the Earth, Mother of Gods and Men

Pindar, Nemean 6. 1-2

“The race of gods and the race of men are separate; but we both breathe thanks to one mother.”

῝Εν ἀνδρῶν, ἓν θεῶν γένος· ἐκ μιᾶς δὲ πνέομεν
ματρὸς ἀμφότεροι·

Homeric Hymn to Mother Earth (30)

“I sing of earth, the mother of all, our fine foundation,
The oldest one, who feeds as many things as exist on the land
And as many things that move on the earth, on the sea
Or fly above it. Everything grows strong because of your wealth.
Because of you, queen, they have many children and many fruit,
You have power to give life and take it away
For mortal men. Whoever you cherish in your heart
Becomes happy, because nothing is begrudged to him.
His field grows strong with life-giving food—and in the fields
He does well with his flocks, and his house is full of goods.
These men rule cities of beautiful women with good laws,
Great wealth and blessings attend them.
Their sons find glory in prudence and youth;
Their daughters carry flowers in dance with happy hearts
As they delight playing in the blooming meadow,
When you honor them, holy goddess, goddess without envy.

Hail, mother of the gods, wife of starry Ouranos,
Please grant us a life fit-to-our-hearts in exchange for this song.”

Γαῖαν παμμήτειραν ἀείσομαι, ἠϋθέμεθλον,
πρεσβίστην, ἣ φέρβει ἐπὶ χθονὶ πάνθ᾿ ὁπόσ᾿ ἐστίν,
ἠμὲν ὅσα χθόνα δῖαν ἐπέρχεται ἠδ᾿ ὅσα πόντον
ἠδ᾿ ὅσα πωτῶνται· τὰ δὲ φέρβεται ἐκ σέθεν ὄλβου.
ἐκ σέο δ᾿ εὔπαιδές τε καὶ εὔκαρποι τελέθουσιν,
πότνια, σεῦ δ᾿ ἔχεται δοῦναι βίον ἠδ᾿ ἀφελέσθαι
θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν· ὃ δ᾿ ὄλβιος, ὅν κε σὺ θυμῶι
πρόφρων τιμήσηις, τῶι τ᾿ ἄφθονα πάντα πάρεστιν·
βρίθει μέν σφιν ἄρουρα φερέσβιος, ἠδὲ κατ᾿ἀγρούς
κτήνεσιν εὐθηνεῖ, οἶκος δ᾿ ἐμπίμπλαται ἐσθλῶν·
αὐτοὶ δ᾿ εὐνομίηισι πόλιν κάτα καλλιγύναικα
κοιρανέουσ᾿, ὄλβος δὲ πολὺς καὶ πλοῦτος ὀπηδεῖ·
παῖδες δ᾿ εὐφροσύνηι νεοθηλέϊ κυδιόωσιν,
παρθενικαί τε χοροῖς φερεσανθέσιν εὔφρονι θυμῶι
παίζουσ<α>ι χαίρουσι κατ᾿ ἄνθεα μαλ<θ>ακὰ ποίης,
οὕς κε σὺ τιμήσηις, σεμνὴ θεά, ἄφθονε δαῖμον.
χαῖρε, θεῶν μήτηρ, ἄλοχ᾿ Οὑρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος,
πρόφρων δ᾿ ἀντ᾿ ὠιδῆς βίοτον θυμήρε᾿ ὄπαζε·

Euripides,fr. 484 (Melanippe Wise): Alternative Cosmogony

“The story is not mine, but from my mother:
Sky and Earth were once a single form.
When they were split apart from one another
They created and delivered all things to the light:
Trees, birds, beasts the sea supports
And the race of mortal men.”

κοὐκ ἐμὸς ὁ μῦθος, ἀλλ’ ἐμῆς μητρὸς πάρα,
ὡς οὐρανός τε γαῖά τ’ ἦν μορφὴ μία•
ἐπεὶ δ’ ἐχωρίσθησαν ἀλλήλων δίχα,
τίκτουσι πάντα κἀνέδωκαν εἰς φάος,
δένδρη, πετεινά, θῆρας οὕς θ’ ἅλμη τρέφει
γένος τε θνητῶν.

Some Greek Words for Treason

ἀπιστία, “treachery”
προδοσία, “high treason”, “betrayal”
προδοτής, “traitor”
ἐπιβουλή, “plot”

Simonides’ Dedicatory Inscription for Harmodius and Aristogeiton

“Truly a great dawn rose for the Athenians when Aristogeiton
And Harmodius killed Hipparchus

ἦ μέγ᾿ Ἀθηναίοισι φόως γένεθ᾿, ἡνίκ᾿ Ἀριστογείτων
Ἵππαρχον κτεῖνε καὶ Ἁρμόδιος·

Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians

“The Polemarch offers sacrifices to Artemis the Huntress and Enyalios and arranges for the funerary contest for those who have died in war and also makes the annual offerings to Harmodius and Aristogeiton

LVIII. Ὁ δὲ πολέμαρχος θύει μὲν θυσίας τήν τε τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι τῇ Ἀγροτέρᾳ καὶ τῷ Ἐνυαλίῳ, διατίθησι δ᾿ ἀγῶνα τὸν ἐπιτάφιον [καὶ] τοῖς τετελευτηκόσιν ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ, καὶ Ἁρμοδίῳ καὶ Ἀριστογείτονι ἐναγίσματα ποιεῖ.

Image result for Ancient Greek Gaia

Presocratic Principles on a Sunday

WATER

Thales, fr. 20
“Water is the beginning and the end of everything.”

[οὕτος ἔφη] ἀρχὴν τοῦ παντὸς εἶναι καὶ τέλος τὸ ὕδωρ

AIR

Diogenes of Apollonia (D. L. 9.57)

“Diogenes believed these things: that the first principle is air, there are endless universes and empty space.”

᾿Εδόκει δὲ αὐτῷ τάδε· στοιχεῖον εἶναι τὸν ἀέρα, κόσμους ἀπείρους καὶ κενὸν ἄπειρον·

Anaximenes, Diog. 2.3

“He said that the first principle was the air and the boundless. And that the stars did not move under the earth, but around it.”

οὗτος ἀρχὴν ἀέρα εἶπεν καὶ τὸ ἄπειρον. κινεῖσθαι δὲ τὰ ἄστρα οὐχ ὑπὸ γῆν, ἀλλὰ περὶ γῆν.

Anaximander, Test. 10.3

“the boundless contains the origin of all creation and destruction.”

… τὸ ἄπειρον φάναι τὴν πᾶσαν αἰτίαν ἔχειν τῆς τοῦ παντὸς γενέσεώς τε καὶ φθορᾶς

FIRE

Heraclitus, fr. 30

“This world, which no god or man ever made, the same world to all, it always was, is and will be an ever-living fire with some measures kindled and others going out.”

κόσμον τόνδε, τὸν αὐτὸν ἁπάντων, οὔτε τις θεῶν οὐτε ἀνθρώπων ἐποίησεν, ἀλλ’ ἦν ἀεὶ καὶ ἔστιν καὶ ἔσται πῦρ ἀείζωον, ἁπτόμενον μέτρα καὶ ἀποσβεννύμενον μέτρα

Heraclitus, fr. 76

“Fire creates the death of earth; air creates the death of fire; water creates the death of air; earth the death of water.”

ζῆι πῦρ τὸν γῆς θάνατον καὶ ἀὴρ ζῆι τὸν πυρὸς θάνατον, ὕδωρ ζῆι τὸν ἀέρος
θάνατον, γῆ τὸν ὕδατος.

EARTH

Parmenides (Diogenes 9.21-23)

“He declared first that the world was spherical and in the center [of everything]. And he said there were two principle elements, fire and earth, and that the first acted like a craftsman and the second like material.”

πρῶτος δὲ οὗτος τὴν γῆν ἀπέφαινε σφαιροειδῆ καὶ ἐν μέσωι κεῖσθαι. δύο τε εἶναι στοιχεῖα, πῦρ καὶ γῆν, καὶ τὸ μὲν δημιουργοῦ τάξιν ἔχειν, τὴν δὲ ὕλης. (22)

Four-From-Into-One

Empedocles, fr. 17.25-27

I will speak a two-fold tale. Once, first, the one alone grew
Out of many and then in turn it grew apart into many from one.
Fire, and Water, and Earth and the invincible peak of Air,

δίπλ’ ἐρέω· τοτὲ μὲν γὰρ ἓν ηὐξήθη μόνον εἶναι
ἐκ πλεόνων, τοτὲ δ’ αὖ διέφυ πλέον’ ἐξ ἑνὸς εἶναι,
πῦρ καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ γαῖα καὶ ἠέρος ἄπλετον ὕψος,

Bonus Round

Heraclitus, fr. 53
“War is father and king of everything”

Πόλεμος πάντων μὲν πατήρ ἐστι, πάντων δὲ βασιλεύς

Sing it, Mr.Byrne