Weekend Plans with Alcaeus

Alcaeus, Fr. 38A (P. Oxy. 1233 fr. 1 ii 8–20 + 2166(b)1)

“Drink and get drunk with me, Melanippos.
Why would you say that once you cross the great eddying
River of Acheron you will see the pure light of the sun again?
Come on, don’t hope for great things.

For even the son of Aiolos, Sisyphos used to claim
He was better than death because he knew the most of men.
Even though he was so very wise, he crossed
The eddying river Acheron twice thanks to fate
And Kronos’ son granted that he would have toil
Beneath the dark earth. So don’t hope for these things.

As long as we are young, now is the time we must
Endure whatever of these things the god soon grants us to suffer.”

πῶνε [καὶ μέθυ᾿ ὦ] Μελάνιππ᾿ ἄμ᾿ ἔμοι· τί [φαῖς †
ὄταμε[. . . .]διννάεντ᾿ † Ἀχέροντα μέγ[αν πόρον
ζάβαι[ς ἀ]ελίω κόθαρον φάος [ἄψερον
ὄψεσθ᾿; ἀλλ᾿ ἄγι μὴ μεγάλων ἐπ[ιβάλλεο·
καὶ γὰρ Σίσυφος Αἰολίδαις βασίλευς [ἔφα
ἄνδρων πλεῖστα νοησάμενος [θανάτω κρέτην·
ἀλλὰ καὶ πολύιδρις ἔων ὐπὰ κᾶρι [δὶς
δ̣ιννάεντ᾿ Ἀχέροντ᾿ ἐπέραισε, μ[έμηδε δ᾿ ὦν
αὔτῳ μόχθον ἔχην Κρονίδαις βα [σίλευς κάτω
ελαίνας χθόνος· ἀλλ᾿ ἄγι μὴ τά[δ᾿ ἐπέλπεο·
θᾶς] τ᾿ ἀβάσομεν αἴ ποτα κἄλλοτα ν [ῦν χρέων
φέρ]ην ὄττινα τῶνδε πάθην τά[χα δῷ θέος.

Image result for medieval manuscript acheron
Dante Being rowed across Acheron, 5th c, Yates Thompson MS 36, f. 6r. B.L.

Some of us can’t say this any more…

People-eating, Tyrant-Loving, Money-Makers: Some More Useful Greek Compounds

δημεχθής, “hated by the people”
δήμευσις, “confiscation of property”
δημοβόρος, “people devouring”
δημοκόλαξ, “people-flatterer”
δημοπίθηκος, “charlatan”

“You are a people eating king who rules over nobodies”

δημοβόρος βασιλεὺς ἐπεὶ οὐτιδανοῖσιν ἀνάσσεις, Hom. Il. 1.231

τυραννεῖον, “a tyrant’s home”
τυραννοδαίμων, “a superhuman tyrant”
τυραννοδιδάσκαλος, “teacher of tyrants”
τυραννοποιός, “tyrant maker”
τυραννοφόνος, “tyrant slayer”
φιλοτύραννος, “tyrant-lover”

For the etymology of tyrant….

“Bring down a people-eating tyrant however you desire
No criticism for this comes from the gods”

δημοφάγον δὲ τύραννον ὅπως ἐθέλεις κατακλῖναι
οὐ νέμεσις πρὸς θεῶν γίνεται οὐδεμία, Theognis, fr. 1181-2

“Money makes the man. A poor man isn’t noble or honored…”

χρήματ’ ἄνηρ, πένιχρος δ’ οὐδ’ εἲς πέλετ’ ἔσλος οὐδὲ τίμιος, Alcaeus fr. 360

χρηματαγωγός, “money-carrier”
χρηματιστής, “money-maker”
χρηματοδαίτης , “money distributing”
φιλοχρματός, “money-lover”

“Money finds men friends
and honor too, and, at the last,
the seat of power nearest heaven.
No one, truly, is an enemy to money;
Anyone who is denies his hatred.
Wealth is skilled at creeping into places
High and low, places where a poor man,
Even if he enters, cannot get what he wants.
A body that is malformed, wealth makes attractive;
A senseless man, wealth makes wise.”

τὰ χρήματ’ ἀνθρώποισιν εὑρίσκει φίλους,
αὖθις δὲ τιμάς, εἶτα τῆς ὑπερτάτης
τυραννίδος θακοῦσιν ἀγχίστην ἕδραν.
ἔπειτα δ’ οὐδεὶς ἐχθρὸς οὔτε φύεται
πρὸς χρήμαθ’ οἵ τε φύντες ἀρνοῦνται στυγεῖν.
δεινὸς γὰρ ἕρπειν πλοῦτος ἔς τε τἄβατα
καὶ †πρὸς τὰ βατά†, χὠπόθεν πένης ἀνὴρ
οὐδ’ ἐντυχὼν δύναιτ’ ἂν ὧν ἐρᾷ τυχεῖν.
καὶ γὰρ δυσειδὲς σῶμα καὶ δυσώνυμον
γλώσσῃ σοφὸν τίθησιν εὔμορφόν τ’ ἰδεῖν, Soph. Frag. 88

Image result for Greek Vase Tyrant

“Honor Dionysus as a Doctor”: Living and Drinking

From Athenaeus’ Deipnosophists (1.41.16-36)

“Mnestheus of Athens also insists that the Pythia commanded the Athenians to honor Dionysus as a doctor. So Alcaeus the Mitylenaean poet says:

Wet your lungs with wine, for the dog-star is rising.
The season is rough: everything thirsts in this heat.

And elsewhere he says: “Let’s drink, for the dog star is rising.” Eupolis says that Callias is compelled to drink by Pythagoras so that “he may cleanse his lung before the dog star’s rise.” And it is not only the lung that gets dry, but the heart runs the same risk. That’s why Antiphanes says:

Tell me, why do we live?
I say that it is to drink.
See how many trees alongside rushing streams
Drink constantly throughout the day and night
And how big and beautiful they grow.
Those that abstain
Wilt from the root up.

drinking

καὶ Μνησίθεος δ’ ὁ ᾿Αθηναῖος Διόνυσον ἰατρόν φησι τὴν Πυθίαν χρῆσαι τιμᾶν ᾿Αθηναίοις. φησὶ δὲ καὶ ᾿Αλκαῖος ὁ Μιτυληναῖος ποιητής (fr. 39 B4)·

τέγγε πνεύμονα οἴνῳ· τὸ γὰρ ἄστρον περιτέλλεται·

ἡ δ’ ὥρη χαλεπή· πάντα δὲ δίψαισ’ ὑπὸ καύματος.

καὶ ἀλλαχοῦ (fr. 40)·

πίνωμεν, τὸ γὰρ ἄστρον περιτέλλεται.

Εὔπολίς τε τὸν Καλλίαν φησὶν ἀναγκάζεσθαι ὑπὸ Πρωταγόρου πίνειν, ἵνα (I 297 K)·

πρὸ τοῦ κυνὸς τὸν πνεύμον’ ἔκλυτον φορῇ. ἡμῖν δ’ οὐ μόνον ὁ πνεύμων ἀπεξήρανται, κινδυνεύει δὲ καὶ ἡ καρδία. καίτοι ᾿Αντιφάνης λέγει (II 112 K)·

 

τὸ δὲ ζῆν, εἰπέ μοι,

τί ἐστι; τὸ πίνειν φήμ’ ἐγώ.

ὁρᾷς παρὰ ῥείθροισι χειμάρροις ὅσα

δένδρων ἀεὶ τὴν νύκτα καὶ τὴν ἡμέραν

βρέχεται, μέγεθος καὶ κάλλος οἷα γίνεται,

τὰ δ’ ἀντιτείνοντ’ [οἱονεὶ δίψαν τινὰ

ἢ ξηρασίαν ἔχοντ’] αὐτόπρεμν’ ἀπόλλυται.

οὕτω τούτοις, φησί, κυνολογήσασιν ἐδόθη πιεῖν. εἴρηται δὲ τὸ βρέχειν καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ πίνειν. ᾿Αντιφάνης

(II 126 K)·

δεῖ γὰρ φαγόντας δαψιλῶς βρέχειν.

 

 

 

 

Before Redbull, Eros Gave You Wings: Alcaeus, Plato and Homer

According to a Hellenistic collection, the poet Alcaeus complained of the onslaught of the erotic god:

Greek Anthology, 5. 10 (Attributed to Alcaeus of Messene)

“I hate Love [Eros]. Why doesn’t the overwhelming god attack
wild beasts instead of shooting arrows at my heart?
What good is it for a god to burn out a man? What is the rite
that has him pin me and take a prize from my head?”

᾿Εχθαίρω τὸν ῎Ερωτα. τί γὰρ βαρὺς οὐκ ἐπὶ θῆρας
ὄρνυται, ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἐμὴν ἰοβολεῖ κραδίην;
τί πλέον, εἰ θεὸς ἄνδρα καταφλέγει; ἢ τί τὸ σεμνὸν
δῃώσας ἀπ’ ἐμῆς ἆθλον ἔχει κεφαλῆς;

From theoi.com
From theoi.com

 Eros’ wings seem to have rather ancient provenance–the arrows may come in later:

Plato, Phaedrus 242b (= Fr. 1 of Homeric Epikikhlides?)

“I believe that some of the Homeridai quote from their epic repositories two lines concerning Eros—one of which is very offensive and not especially metrical. For they sing thus:

“The mortals call Eros the flying one and the gods
call him Pteros [Winged] because he makes you grow wings.”

It is just as easy to believe them as it is not….”

λέγουσι δὲ οἶμαί τινες ῾Ομηριδῶν ἐκ τῶν ἀποθέτων ἐπῶν δύο ἔπη εἰς τὸν ῎Ερωτα, ὧν τὸ ἕτερον ὑβριστικὸν πάνυ καὶ οὐ σφόδρα τι ἔμμετρον· ὑμνοῦσι δὲ ὧδε—

τὸν δ’ ἤτοι θνητοὶ μὲν ῎Ερωτα καλοῦσι ποτηνόν,
ἀθάνατοι δὲ Πτέρωτα, διὰ πτεροφύτορ’ ἀνάγκην.
τούτοις δὴ ἔξεστι μὲν πείθεσθαι, ἔξεστιν δὲ μή·

[The Epikikhlides is a hexameter poem attributed to Homer by Athenaeus 65a, 639a. The Pseudo-Herodotean Life of Homer numbers the Epikikhlides among Homer’s ‘playful’ poems (ta paignia)].

Alcaeus, fragment 34.5-8: Fragments of a Hymn to the Dioscuri

“You [Castor and Pollux], who race over the wide earth and the whole sea
On the backs of swift-footed horses
Easily rescue men from shrill death…”

οἲ κὰτ εὔρηαν χ[θόνα] καὶ θάλασσαν
παῖσαν ἔρχεσθ’ ὠ[κυπό]δων ἐπ’ ἴππων,
ῤήα δ’ ἀνθρώποι[ς] θα[ν]άτω ῤύεσθε
ζακρυόεντος

Some Fragments on Wine

Panyassis fr. 12 (19 W; Stobaeus 3.18.21)

“A mortal who does not draw wine to his heart’s delight does not seem to me to be alive or to live the life of an enduring man—he’s a moron.”

οὐ γάρ μοι ζώειν γε δοκεῖ βροτὸς οὐδὲ βιῶναι

ἀνθρώποιο βίον ταλασίφρονος, ὅστις ἀπ’ οἴνου

θυμὸν ἐρητύσας πίνει ποτόν, ἄλλ’ ἐνεόφρων.

Panyassis fr. 12 (19 W)

“Mortals have a fine gift equal to fire: wine, a defense against evil and companion of any song.”

οἶνος γὰρ πυρὶ ἶσον ἐπιχθονίοισιν ὄνειαρ

ἐσθλόν, ἀλεξίκακον, πάσης συνοπηδὸν ἀοιδῆς.

Cypria, Fragment 17 (18W) (Athenaeus, Deipnosophists)

“Menelaus, the best thing the gods made to scatter the cares of mortal men is wine”

οἶνόν τοι, Μενέλαε, θεοὶ ποίησαν ἄριστον

θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν ἀποσκεδάσαι μελεδῶνας.

Alcaeus 347. 3-4 (Athenaeus, Deipnosophists x 430c-d)

“Wine, the thing Semele and Zeus’ son gave to men

an amnesia from their troubles.”

οἶνον γὰρ Σεμέλας καὶ Δίος υἶος λαθικάδεον

ἀνθρώποισιν ἔδωκ’.

Alcaeus, fragment 335

“Bucchus, the best of all medicine for those who have wine is getting drunk”

ὦ Βύκχι, φαρμάκων δ’ ἄριστον

οἶνον ἐνεικαμένοις μεθύσθην

Alcaeus, Fr. 326. 1-4

“I don’t fathom the war of the winds:

how one wave courses from this side

another from that, and the one in the middle

we fall upon in our black ship.”

 

ἀσυννέτημμι τὼν ἀνέμων στάσιν,

τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἔνθεν κῦμα κυλίνδεται,

τὸ δ’ ἔνθεν, ἄμμες δ’ ὂν τὸ μέσσον

νᾶϊ φορήμμεθα σὺν μελαίναι