When Spirits Sin

Empedocles: Fragment 115 (Diels-Kranz)

There is a matter of Necessity, a decree of the gods,
Ancient, eternal, and sealed with broad oaths:
When someone commits the sin of murder
He pollutes his dear limbs, breaching his oath.

But since spirits are allotted long lives,
He’s to wander thirty-thousand years
Separated from the blessed ones,
Coming into being throughout time
As every kind of mortal thing,
This then that painful way of being.

Aether’s might pursues him into in the sea,
Then sea spits him out onto the earth’s floor;
Earth pelts him into the shining sun’s rays,
And that last throws him into aether’s whirls.
One then another, and all despise him.

I’m one of them myself–an exile from god and a wanderer,
Because I put my trust in frenzied Strife.

ἔστιν Ἀνάγκης χρῆμα, θεῶν ψήφισμα παλαιόν,
ἀίδιον, πλατέεσσι κατεσφρηγισμένον ὅρκοις·
εὖτέ τις ἀμπλακίῃσι φόνῳ φίλα γυῖα μιήνῃ
ὅς κεν ἐπίορκον ἁμαρτήσας ἐπομόσσῃ,
δαίμονες οἵτε μακραίωνος λελάχασι βίοιο,
τρίς μιν μυρίας ὧρας ἀπὸ μακάρων ἀλάλησθαι,
φυομένον παντοῖα διὰ χρόνου εἴδεα θνητῶν
ἀργαλέας βιότοιο μεταλλάσσοντα κελεύθους.
αἰθέριον μὲν γάρ σφε μένος πόντονδε διώκει,
πόντος δ’ ἐς χθονὸς οὖδας ἀπέπτυσε, γαῖα δ’ ἐς αὐγάς
ἠελίου φαέθοντος, ὁ δ’ αἰθέρος ἔμβαλε δίναις·
ἄλλος δ’ ἐξ ἄλλου δέχεται, στυγέουσι δὲ πάντες.
τῶν καὶ ἐγὼ νῦν εἰμι, φυγὰς θεόθεν καὶ ἀλήτης,
Νείκεϊ μαινομένῳ πίσυνος.

Detail from William Blake’s Cain Fleeing From the Wrath of God

Larry Benn has a B.A. in English Literature from Harvard College, an M.Phil in English Literature from Oxford University, and a J.D. from Yale Law School. Making amends for a working life misspent in finance, he’s now a hobbyist in ancient languages and blogs at featsofgreek.blogspot.com.

Screwing Up, Some Proverbs for FTS Week

Euripides, Hippolyus 916

“Oh humanity! You pointlessly fuck up so often!”

ὦ πόλλ᾽ ἁμαρτάνοντες ἄνθρωποι μάτην

 

Arsenius, Proverbs 68a

“If one must screw up, it is more righteous to die unjustly than to kill unjustly”

Εἰ δέοι τι ἁμαρτεῖν, τὸ ἀδίκως ἀπολῦσαι ὁσιώτερον τοῦ
ἀδίκως ἀπολέσαι.

12 97a

“A person who does the most messes up the most.”

῾Ο πλεῖστα πράσσων πλεῖστ’ ἁμαρτάνει βροτῶν.

13 39 h

“You can’t fuck-up twice in a war

Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν πολέμῳ δὶς ἁμαρτάνειν

 

Lysias, fr. 267 [=Stobaeus 3.12.20]

“Lying the easiest thing for those who mess up frequently.”

Ψεύδεσθαι προχειρότατον τοῖς πολλάκις ἁμαρτάνουσιν.

 

Michael Apostolios, Proverbs

1.70

“A citizen’s screw-up is the state’s shame”

Αἰσχύνη πόλεως πολίτου ἁμαρτία: ἐξ ἀποφθέγματος.

 

8.52

“A nail for a nail. Also, to hammer a nail with a nail. This is for those who try to fix a mistake with another one.

῟Ηλος τὸν ἧλον: καί· Πάτταλος τὸν πάτταλον
ἐξέκρουσεν: ἐπὶ τῶν ἰωμένων δι’ ἁμαρτήματος ἁμάρτημα.

File:Northern France or Flanders, St. Omer or Thèrouanne, 14th century - Leaf from a Psalter- Initial D- A Fool Rebuked by God - 2011.55 - Cleveland Museum of Art.tif
God rebukes a fool

 

Screwing Up, Some Proverbs

Euripides, Hippolyus 916

“Oh humanity! You pointlessly fuck up so often!”

ὦ πόλλ᾽ ἁμαρτάνοντες ἄνθρωποι μάτην

 

Arsenius, Proverbs 68a

“If one must screw up, it is more righteous to die unjustly than to kill unjustly”

Εἰ δέοι τι ἁμαρτεῖν, τὸ ἀδίκως ἀπολῦσαι ὁσιώτερον τοῦ
ἀδίκως ἀπολέσαι.

12 97a

“A person who does the most messes up the most.”

῾Ο πλεῖστα πράσσων πλεῖστ’ ἁμαρτάνει βροτῶν.

13 39 h

“You can’t fuck-up twice in a war

Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν πολέμῳ δὶς ἁμαρτάνειν

 

Lysias, fr. 267 [=Stobaeus 3.12.20]

“Lying the easiest thing for those who mess up frequently.”

Ψεύδεσθαι προχειρότατον τοῖς πολλάκις ἁμαρτάνουσιν.

 

Michael Apostolios, Proverbs

1.70

“A citizen’s screw-up is the state’s shame”

Αἰσχύνη πόλεως πολίτου ἁμαρτία: ἐξ ἀποφθέγματος.

 

8.52

“A nail for a nail. Also, to hammer a nail with a nail. This is for those who try to fix a mistake with another one.

῟Ηλος τὸν ἧλον: καί· Πάτταλος τὸν πάτταλον
ἐξέκρουσεν: ἐπὶ τῶν ἰωμένων δι’ ἁμαρτήματος ἁμάρτημα.

File:Northern France or Flanders, St. Omer or Thèrouanne, 14th century - Leaf from a Psalter- Initial D- A Fool Rebuked by God - 2011.55 - Cleveland Museum of Art.tif
God rebukes a fool

 

Screwing Up, Some Proverbs

Euripides, Hippolyus 916

“Oh humanity! You pointlessly fuck up so often!”

ὦ πόλλ᾽ ἁμαρτάνοντες ἄνθρωποι μάτην

 

Arsenius, Proverbs 68a

“If one must screw up, it is more righteous to die unjustly than to kill unjustly”

Εἰ δέοι τι ἁμαρτεῖν, τὸ ἀδίκως ἀπολῦσαι ὁσιώτερον τοῦ
ἀδίκως ἀπολέσαι.

12 97a

“A person who does the most messes up the most.”

῾Ο πλεῖστα πράσσων πλεῖστ’ ἁμαρτάνει βροτῶν.

13 39 h

“You can’t fuck-up twice in a war

Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν πολέμῳ δὶς ἁμαρτάνειν

 

Lysias, fr. 267 [=Stobaeus 3.12.20]

“Lying the easiest thing for those who mess up frequently.”

Ψεύδεσθαι προχειρότατον τοῖς πολλάκις ἁμαρτάνουσιν.

 

Michael Apostolios, Proverbs

1.70

“A citizen’s screw-up is the state’s shame”

Αἰσχύνη πόλεως πολίτου ἁμαρτία: ἐξ ἀποφθέγματος.

 

8.52

“A nail for a nail. Also, to hammer a nail with a nail. This is for those who try to fix a mistake with another one.

῟Ηλος τὸν ἧλον: καί· Πάτταλος τὸν πάτταλον
ἐξέκρουσεν: ἐπὶ τῶν ἰωμένων δι’ ἁμαρτήματος ἁμάρτημα.

File:Northern France or Flanders, St. Omer or Thèrouanne, 14th century - Leaf from a Psalter- Initial D- A Fool Rebuked by God - 2011.55 - Cleveland Museum of Art.tif
God rebukes a fool

 

A Real Plato Quotation: Or, I Called Something Fake Too Fast

Yesterday I called the following quote fake too quickly.

This is the Paul Shorey translation available on Perseus. Here’s my translation and a bit more of the context:

Plato, Republic 347c-d

“….For they are not desirous of honors. It is indeed necessary to add some compulsion and penalty on them if they are intending to be willing to rule. This is likely the reason that a willingness to go to office without facing compulsion is considered shameful.

But the greatest penalty is to be ruled by someone worse if a person is not willing to hold office himself. It seems to me that people of propriety hold office (when they do) because they fear that outcome and that they enter into power not because they are going after something good or because they enjoy it, but because it is necessary and they are not able to entrust it to those better than themselves or their equals.”

. οὐδ’ αὖ τιμῆς ἕνεκα· οὐ γάρ εἰσι φιλότιμοι. δεῖ δὴ  αὐτοῖς ἀνάγκην προσεῖναι καὶ ζημίαν, εἰ μέλλουσιν ἐθέλειν ἄρχειν—ὅθεν κινδυνεύει τὸ ἑκόντα ἐπὶ τὸ ἄρχειν ἰέναι ἀλλὰ μὴ ἀνάγκην περιμένειν αἰσχρὸν νενομίσθαι—τῆς δὲ ζημίας μεγίστη τὸ ὑπὸ πονηροτέρου ἄρχεσθαι, ἐὰν μὴ αὐτὸς ἐθέλῃ ἄρχειν· ἣν δείσαντές μοι φαίνονται ἄρχειν, ὅταν ἄρχωσιν, οἱ ἐπιεικεῖς, καὶ τότε ἔρχονται ἐπὶ τὸ ἄρχειν οὐχ ὡς ἐπ’ ἀγαθόν τι ἰόντες οὐδ’ ὡς εὐπαθήσοντες ἐν αὐτῷ, ἀλλ’ ὡς ἐπ’ ἀναγκαῖον καὶ οὐκ ἔχοντες ἑαυτῶν βελτίοσιν ἐπιτρέψαι οὐδὲ ὁμοίοις.

The earliest instance of this I can find online is from 1963,  in Proceedings and Debates of the Congress, 109, part 29. If you search google books, you will find this quote is really popular in management leadership books where it debuts in the early 2000s and finds steady, unattributed representation.

Wikiquote.com notes that this is an “unsourced quotation”. It should not be considered so, but its use might receive a little more nuanced: this passage is about how ‘good’ people should not be interested in power and enter into it not for profit or possible self-interest, but to prevent lesser people from ruling and harming the state. This is an old-fashioned Greek noblesse oblige. But it is not a fake quote.

Thanks to those who called me out on the tweet. And to those who didn’t: call me out when I am wrong and I will fix it! As Cicero says: “All men make mistakes; but it is fools who persist in them” cuiusvis hominis est errare; nullius nisi insipientis perseverare in errore (Philippics 12.5). Or, as I prefer it: “any person can fuck up: but only fools keep fucking up in the same way.”

Ovid, Amores XIV, 1-8: Advice (to an undergraduate?) On Social Media Use

“I don’t beg you not to mess around because you’re pretty,
But to spare miserable me the need of knowing about it.
I am not some censor who orders you to be a prude,
But only someone who asks you to try to be discreet.
Whoever can deny her mistakes, hasn’t messed up at all.
Only the admitted fault brings dishonor.
What madness it is to confess in light things done at night?
And to report openly deeds performed in secret?”

Non ego, ne pecces, cum sis formosa, recuso,
sed ne sit misero scire necesse mihi;
nec te nostra iubet fieri censura pudicam,
sed tamen, ut temptes dissimulare, rogat.
non peccat, quaecumque potest peccasse negare,
solaque famosam culpa professa facit.
quis furor est, quae nocte latent, in luce fateri,
et quae clam facias facta referre palam?