Bellum Incivile: The Loyal Fixer

Another text tentatively attributed to Caesar was discovered along with the fragments of the De Silvis and an appendix to De Bello Gallico. This is almost surely the lost Bellum Incivile. The second passage was thought by some scholars to be part of a larger work called De Fraude, but recent evidence has all but proven it is related to Manicula’s exploits in Bellum Incivile

2.15 When he learned of these situations, M. Cohen, lest Manicula’s popularity be diminished among the people on account of this scandal and rumors change the opinion of voters (later it became known that Manicula’s moral failures would actually increase his appeal among many and that the Candidi* would believe all of his words) made big payments to the women. Since Cohen had constantly asserted he would never abandon Mancula’s cause and often used to say “A person who deserves my loyalty receives it,” Manicula trusted him greatly.

2.15 His rebus cognitis M. Coenus, ne gratia Maniculae propter flagitium minueretur rumorque opinionem suffragatorum commutaret (postea eius dedecus eam inter multos etiam aucturum Candidosque omnibus eius verbis credituros cognitum est), magnam pecuniam mulieris numeravit. Qui cum se numquam ab amicitia defecturum continuo confirmaret dignosque fide fidem accipere diceret, Manicula ei maxime confidebat.

*There is much debate over the Candidi. Some refer to this group simply as the “Whites,” while others prefer not to translate the term. There are fine scholars on both sides of this debate.

A connected text was found with extensive black markings which a team of paleographers and scientists determined were added intentionally shortly after the piece was written.  Based on similar phrases and the appearance of Maniculam, scholars believe the following should be included among the fragmenta incerta aut dubia of the Bellum Incivile.

?.?  Having accepted payments, M. Flynn was of great service to Turkey and (…) although he was national security advisor. Individual 1 ordered him to (….) and (…) secretly so that (….). At that same time Russians came to (….) complaining that punishments were exacted because of nonexistent offenses and that they had great hope that through his influence Manicula would put an end to the sanctions. (…) Flynn, having spoken with (…) about leniency, (…)

?.? Praemiis acceptis M. Flinnus cum consilia de patriae salute daret magno auxilio Galatianis fuit et (…). Prima Persona eum (…) et (…) clam ut (….) iussit. Eodem tempore Scythiani ad (…) veniebant questum poenas pro vanis iniuriis repetitas magnamque se habere spem auctoritate Maniculam finem suppliciis facturum. (…) Flinnus cum (….) de lenitate locutus, (…)

Image result for heavily damaged latin manuscripts

Bellum Incivile: The Candidi Assemble

Another text tentatively attributed to Caesar was discovered along with the fragments of the De Silvis and an appendix to De Bello Gallico. This is almost surely the lost Bellum Incivile.

C. Julius Caesar (?), Bellum Incivile. Edited by Dani Bostick

2.6 Having covered their heads with red caps, the Candidi, numbering 70,000, from places which were being impoverished by unjust laws and excessive spending of the state because they were regularly forgotten by everyone and were very far away from the resources and wealth of cities, assembled eager to see Manicula whom they believed was sent to them as a gift from the gods to be their leader. Among the Candidi a great fear had taken over which increased quickly because of Manicula’s various speeches.

2.6 Sanguinicis mitris capitibus opertis Candidi, ad hominum milia septuaginta, e locis, qui iniustis legibus atque sumptu civitatis exhuriebantur propterea quod ex omnium memoria diu deponebantur longissimeque ab opibus atque divitiis urbium absunt, studio videndi Maniculae, quem dono deum sibi missum ducem crediderunt, convenerunt. Apud Candidos incesserat animis magnus timor, qui variis Maniculae sermonibus celeriter augetur

2.9 Manicula addressed them and said that the Candidi had arrived at the end of their toils and indignities; that he would drain the low-lying areas around the forum by means of big sewers; and that Hillary, who concealed 30,000 letters, must be locked up and declared an enemy of the state so that he might increase his power. As Manicula was speaking the Candidi kept interrupting and shouting, “Lock her up!”

2.9  Manicula ad hunc modum locutus est: Candidos ad finem laborum ac contumeliarum perventos; se infima loca circa forum cloacis magnis siccaturum; Hillariam, quae triginta milia litterarum furtim celaret, in vinculis conieciendam hostemque rei publicae iudicandam ut suas opes augerentur. Dicentem Candidi interpellabant et conclamitabant: “In catenis!”

 

*mitreae are generally caps fashionable in the East, but here the term is most likely used as a reference to their place of manufacture, rather than the style. 

** There is much debate over the Candidi. Some refer to this group simply as the “Whites,” while others prefer not to translate the term. There are fine scholars on both sides of this debate.

 

fragment 2