Earth, Mother of Gods and Men

Pindar, Nemean 6. 1-2

“The race of gods and the race of men are separate; but we both breathe thanks to one mother.”

῝Εν ἀνδρῶν, ἓν θεῶν γένος· ἐκ μιᾶς δὲ πνέομεν
ματρὸς ἀμφότεροι·

Homeric Hymn to Mother Earth (30)

“I sing of earth, the mother of all, our fine foundation,
The oldest one, who feeds as many things as exist on the land
And as many things that move on the earth, on the sea
Or fly above it. Everything grows strong because of your wealth.
Because of you, queen, they have many children and many fruit,
You have power to give life and take it away
For mortal men. Whoever you cherish in your heart
Becomes happy, because nothing is begrudged to him.
His field grows strong with life-giving food—and in the fields
He does well with his flocks, and his house is full of goods.
These men rule cities of beautiful women with good laws,
Great wealth and blessings attend them.
Their sons find glory in prudence and youth;
Their daughters carry flowers in dance with happy hearts
As they delight playing in the blooming meadow,
When you honor them, holy goddess, goddess without envy.

Hail, mother of the gods, wife of starry Ouranos,
Please grant us a life fit-to-our-hearts in exchange for this song.”

Γαῖαν παμμήτειραν ἀείσομαι, ἠϋθέμεθλον,
πρεσβίστην, ἣ φέρβει ἐπὶ χθονὶ πάνθ᾿ ὁπόσ᾿ ἐστίν,
ἠμὲν ὅσα χθόνα δῖαν ἐπέρχεται ἠδ᾿ ὅσα πόντον
ἠδ᾿ ὅσα πωτῶνται· τὰ δὲ φέρβεται ἐκ σέθεν ὄλβου.
ἐκ σέο δ᾿ εὔπαιδές τε καὶ εὔκαρποι τελέθουσιν,
πότνια, σεῦ δ᾿ ἔχεται δοῦναι βίον ἠδ᾿ ἀφελέσθαι
θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν· ὃ δ᾿ ὄλβιος, ὅν κε σὺ θυμῶι
πρόφρων τιμήσηις, τῶι τ᾿ ἄφθονα πάντα πάρεστιν·
βρίθει μέν σφιν ἄρουρα φερέσβιος, ἠδὲ κατ᾿ἀγρούς
κτήνεσιν εὐθηνεῖ, οἶκος δ᾿ ἐμπίμπλαται ἐσθλῶν·
αὐτοὶ δ᾿ εὐνομίηισι πόλιν κάτα καλλιγύναικα
κοιρανέουσ᾿, ὄλβος δὲ πολὺς καὶ πλοῦτος ὀπηδεῖ·
παῖδες δ᾿ εὐφροσύνηι νεοθηλέϊ κυδιόωσιν,
παρθενικαί τε χοροῖς φερεσανθέσιν εὔφρονι θυμῶι
παίζουσ<α>ι χαίρουσι κατ᾿ ἄνθεα μαλ<θ>ακὰ ποίης,
οὕς κε σὺ τιμήσηις, σεμνὴ θεά, ἄφθονε δαῖμον.
χαῖρε, θεῶν μήτηρ, ἄλοχ᾿ Οὑρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος,
πρόφρων δ᾿ ἀντ᾿ ὠιδῆς βίοτον θυμήρε᾿ ὄπαζε·

Euripides,fr. 484 (Melanippe Wise): Alternative Cosmogony

“The story is not mine, but from my mother:
Sky and Earth were once a single form.
When they were split apart from one another
They created and delivered all things to the light:
Trees, birds, beasts the sea supports
And the race of mortal men.”

κοὐκ ἐμὸς ὁ μῦθος, ἀλλ’ ἐμῆς μητρὸς πάρα,
ὡς οὐρανός τε γαῖά τ’ ἦν μορφὴ μία•
ἐπεὶ δ’ ἐχωρίσθησαν ἀλλήλων δίχα,
τίκτουσι πάντα κἀνέδωκαν εἰς φάος,
δένδρη, πετεινά, θῆρας οὕς θ’ ἅλμη τρέφει
γένος τε θνητῶν.

 

Image result for Ancient Greek Gaia

Betraying the Earth, Mother of Gods and Men

Pindar, Nemean 6. 1-2

“The race of gods and the race of men are separate; but we both breathe thanks to one mother.”

῝Εν ἀνδρῶν, ἓν θεῶν γένος· ἐκ μιᾶς δὲ πνέομεν
ματρὸς ἀμφότεροι·

Homeric Hymn to Mother Earth (30)

“I sing of earth, the mother of all, our fine foundation,
The oldest one, who feeds as many things as exist on the land
And as many things that move on the earth, on the sea
Or fly above it. Everything grows strong because of your wealth.
Because of you, queen, they have many children and many fruit,
You have power to give life and take it away
For mortal men. Whoever you cherish in your heart
Becomes happy, because nothing is begrudged to him.
His field grows strong with life-giving food—and in the fields
He does well with his flocks, and his house is full of goods.
These men rule cities of beautiful women with good laws,
Great wealth and blessings attend them.
Their sons find glory in prudence and youth;
Their daughters carry flowers in dance with happy hearts
As they delight playing in the blooming meadow,
When you honor them, holy goddess, goddess without envy.

Hail, mother of the gods, wife of starry Ouranos,
Please grant us a life fit-to-our-hearts in exchange for this song.”

Γαῖαν παμμήτειραν ἀείσομαι, ἠϋθέμεθλον,
πρεσβίστην, ἣ φέρβει ἐπὶ χθονὶ πάνθ᾿ ὁπόσ᾿ ἐστίν,
ἠμὲν ὅσα χθόνα δῖαν ἐπέρχεται ἠδ᾿ ὅσα πόντον
ἠδ᾿ ὅσα πωτῶνται· τὰ δὲ φέρβεται ἐκ σέθεν ὄλβου.
ἐκ σέο δ᾿ εὔπαιδές τε καὶ εὔκαρποι τελέθουσιν,
πότνια, σεῦ δ᾿ ἔχεται δοῦναι βίον ἠδ᾿ ἀφελέσθαι
θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν· ὃ δ᾿ ὄλβιος, ὅν κε σὺ θυμῶι
πρόφρων τιμήσηις, τῶι τ᾿ ἄφθονα πάντα πάρεστιν·
βρίθει μέν σφιν ἄρουρα φερέσβιος, ἠδὲ κατ᾿ἀγρούς
κτήνεσιν εὐθηνεῖ, οἶκος δ᾿ ἐμπίμπλαται ἐσθλῶν·
αὐτοὶ δ᾿ εὐνομίηισι πόλιν κάτα καλλιγύναικα
κοιρανέουσ᾿, ὄλβος δὲ πολὺς καὶ πλοῦτος ὀπηδεῖ·
παῖδες δ᾿ εὐφροσύνηι νεοθηλέϊ κυδιόωσιν,
παρθενικαί τε χοροῖς φερεσανθέσιν εὔφρονι θυμῶι
παίζουσ<α>ι χαίρουσι κατ᾿ ἄνθεα μαλ<θ>ακὰ ποίης,
οὕς κε σὺ τιμήσηις, σεμνὴ θεά, ἄφθονε δαῖμον.
χαῖρε, θεῶν μήτηρ, ἄλοχ᾿ Οὑρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος,
πρόφρων δ᾿ ἀντ᾿ ὠιδῆς βίοτον θυμήρε᾿ ὄπαζε·

Euripides,fr. 484 (Melanippe Wise): Alternative Cosmogony

“The story is not mine, but from my mother:
Sky and Earth were once a single form.
When they were split apart from one another
They created and delivered all things to the light:
Trees, birds, beasts the sea supports
And the race of mortal men.”

κοὐκ ἐμὸς ὁ μῦθος, ἀλλ’ ἐμῆς μητρὸς πάρα,
ὡς οὐρανός τε γαῖά τ’ ἦν μορφὴ μία•
ἐπεὶ δ’ ἐχωρίσθησαν ἀλλήλων δίχα,
τίκτουσι πάντα κἀνέδωκαν εἰς φάος,
δένδρη, πετεινά, θῆρας οὕς θ’ ἅλμη τρέφει
γένος τε θνητῶν.

Some Greek Words for Treason

ἀπιστία, “treachery”
προδοσία, “high treason”, “betrayal”
προδοτής, “traitor”
ἐπιβουλή, “plot”

Simonides’ Dedicatory Inscription for Harmodius and Aristogeiton

“Truly a great dawn rose for the Athenians when Aristogeiton
And Harmodius killed Hipparchus

ἦ μέγ᾿ Ἀθηναίοισι φόως γένεθ᾿, ἡνίκ᾿ Ἀριστογείτων
Ἵππαρχον κτεῖνε καὶ Ἁρμόδιος·

Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians

“The Polemarch offers sacrifices to Artemis the Huntress and Enyalios and arranges for the funerary contest for those who have died in war and also makes the annual offerings to Harmodius and Aristogeiton

LVIII. Ὁ δὲ πολέμαρχος θύει μὲν θυσίας τήν τε τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι τῇ Ἀγροτέρᾳ καὶ τῷ Ἐνυαλίῳ, διατίθησι δ᾿ ἀγῶνα τὸν ἐπιτάφιον [καὶ] τοῖς τετελευτηκόσιν ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ, καὶ Ἁρμοδίῳ καὶ Ἀριστογείτονι ἐναγίσματα ποιεῖ.

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Arranged Marriages, Solemn Promises: Etymologies of Spondere

From De Lingua Latina, 6. 69-70

Spondere is to say spondeo,”I promise”, related to sponte, something done willingly—this has the same force as a voluntate, “with personal inclination”. This is why Lucilius writes about the woman from Crete that she came to his bedroom willingly, that she tossed off her clothes of her own desire. Terence intends the same willingness when he says that it is better: “to do something right because of your own correct desire rather than fear of another.”

From the same sponte on which spondere is based, are derived the words despondet  (“he pledges”) and respondet  (“he promises in return, answers”), desponsor  (“promiser”), and sponsa (“promised bride”), and many others that are similar. For one spondet (“solemnly swears”) when he says sponte (“willingly”) spondeo (“I pledge”).  He who has promised (spondidit) is thus a sponsor. He who is by “formal promise” (sponsus) bound to keep a pledge to another person is called a cosponsus.

This is what Naevius is thinking when he says consponsi. If money or a daughter “were promised” (spondebatur) as part of a marriage arrangement, both the money and the girl who was promised (desponsa) would be called sponsa (“pledged”). The money which had been agreed upon under the engagement agreement (sponsu) was called a sponsio (“guarantee”); the man to whom the things were promised would be called a sponsus (“betrothed”) and the day of the agreement would be called “betrothal day” (sponsalis).

 

Spondere est dicere spondeo, a sponte: nam id idem valet et a voluntate. Itaque Lucilius scribit de Cretaea, cum ad se cubitum venerit sua voluntate, sponte ipsam suapte adductam, ut tunicam et cetera reiceret. Eandem uoluntatem Terentius significat, cum ait satius esse

Sua sponte recte facere quam alieno metu.

Ab eadem sponte, a qua dictum spondere, declinatum despondet et respondet et desponsor et sponsa, item sic alia. Spondet enim qui dicit a sua sponte “spondeo”; qui spopondit, est sponsor; qui idem ut faciat obligatur sponsu, consponsus.

Hoc Naevius significat cum ait “consponsi.” Si spondebatur pecunia aut filia nuptiarum causa, appellabatur et pecunia et quae desponsa erat sponsa; quae pecunia inter se contra sponsu rogata erat, dicta sponsio; cui desponsa quae erat, sponsus; quo die sponsum erat, sponsalis.